Fracture risk assessment from the World Health Organization

Our FRAX software application helps you identify which of your patients are more likely to suffer a hip fracture or a major osteoporotic fracture of the clinical spine, forearm, hip, or shoulder within the next 10 years. Using an algorithm developed by the World Health Organization, it automatically incorporates the results from a femoral bone mineral density (BMD) test, while also considering risk factors. The FRAX model also helps you identify the subset of patients in the low bone mass category that would likely benefit most from treatment.

Compared to BMD T-scores alone, the use of 10-year fracture-probability assessments may provide a better basis for shared decision-making between patient and physician.

Download FRAX Brochure (PDF).

doctor and patient


Identify patients with a high risk of fracture

The FRAX model is useful in identifying the subset of patients in the low-bone-mass category most likely to benefit from treatment (those with a T-score of –1 to –2.5, categorized as having osteopenia). This is an important advance, since the majority of fractures do not occur in patients with osteoporosis.1

The FRAX model also includes men and different ethnicities, two groups experiencing an increase in osteoporotic fractures. However, osteoporosis testing and intervention have been largely neglected.2

In addition, FRAX helps you identify patients with co-morbid conditions that increase fracture risk, and targets them for intervention.3

1.National Osteoporosis Foundation. 2008 Clinician’s Guide to Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis. Washington, DC: National Osteoporosis Foundation. 
2. Dawson-Hughes B, Tosteson ANA, Melton LJ III, et al. Implications of absolute fracture risk assessment for osteoporosis practice guidelines in the USA. Osteoporos Int 2008;19:449-458. 
3. Siris E, Delmas PD. Assessment of 10-year absolute fracture risk: a new paradigm with worldwide application. Osteoporos Int 2008;19:383-384.             4. Schuit, SCE, van der Klift M, Weel AEAM, et al. Fracture incidence and association with bone mineral density in elderly men and women: The Rotterdam Study. Bone 2004;34:195-202. 
Percent of Fractures by osteoporosis risk categories

Percentage of non-vertebral, hip, upper humerus and wrist fractures that occurred in men and women with osteoporosis, osteopenia or normal BMD using gender specific T-scores.4


The FRAX application on GE DXA bone densitometers includes the following features:

  • Fracture risk algorithm, licensed from the World Health Organization (WHO)
  • Seamless integration with GE’s enCORE bone densitometry software
  • Compliance with new osteoporosis guidelines incorporating FRAX
  • Expanded reference data, including men and different ethnicities 

See additional features in the latest enCORE software.

Risk factors included in WHO
fracture risk assessment model
 Personal history of fracture
 Femoral neck BMD
 Low body mass index (kg/m2)
 Glucocorticoid therapy
 Secondary osteoporosis
(e.g. rheumatoid arthritis)
 Parental history of hip fracture
 Current smoking
 Alcohol intake 3 or more drinks/day